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For many, spring warmth is associated with the flowering of lilacs. Therefore, it is often planted in household plots, and closer to the house, so that "a lilac bush looks out the window." Over the years and centuries of popular love, lilac has become not only an obvious symbol of spring, but also a very symbolic plant. What does a lilac branch that looks out of the window prophesy?
Lilac is an abundant lush bloom and an amazing aroma. But the bush not only decorates the site. Among those who believe in omens and superstitions, this plant is considered a powerful talisman:
Lilac planted next to the house reliably protects households from any negativity
White lilac at home not only neutralizes negative energy, but also transforms it into positive
Even the smell of lilac is considered useful for gaining inner harmony.
If you don't have a lilac bush in your garden, you can get by with a bouquet of branches. True, the positive effect will be short-lived. A vase with lilacs brought into the bedroom on a clear moonlit night will help you see prophetic dreams.
Perhaps a bouquet of lilacs placed in the bedroom will evoke prophetic dreams.
It is believed that lilacs help make wishes come true. A flower with five (or more) petals must be eaten, chewed thoroughly and visualized in the process. It is only necessary not to tell anyone about the conceived. And for young girls such a "find" on the bush predicts acquaintance with a suitable gentleman and / or a quick wedding.
The sign of a lilac flower with five petals is known to everyone from childhood (but more often for some reason flowers with three come across)
The only negative sign associated with this plant concerns bouquets of white lilacs. They allegedly do not allow young girls to marry, threaten the loss of a spouse for married ladies, prevent the sick from recovering and even provoke their early death. To avoid such an undesirable effect, it is enough just not to bring cut branches into the house, or add at least a couple of purple ones to the white inflorescences.
If you are superstitious and suspicious, you should definitely not carry a bouquet of white lilacs to your house.
By the flowering of lilacs, one can also judge what the weather will be like:
It would be appropriate to present a bouquet of lilacs to your beloved, hinting at your tender, quivering, but at the same time serious, deep feelings for her. You can also give it to loved ones - spouse, sister, mother. In this case, the bouquet symbolizes devotion to related feelings, the willingness to always support and help. Lilac, presented to an unfamiliar person, looks strange - strong affection and sincere love are unlikely to arise immediately, connoisseurs of flower symbolism may suspect you of hypocrisy.
There is also a fortune-telling on a lilac branch. An unmarried girl needs to cut it off before the first frost and put it in the water. If the buds have time to open before Christmas, she will get married next year.
For the house itself, the lilac planted under the windows does not pose a danger. Its root system is superficial, it grows mainly in breadth (within the projection of the crown). It is not able to "undermine" the foundation and damage underground communications. Shrubs are very rarely turned out of the ground by the wind; you can also not worry about the windows and the roof.
A complaint often made to a plant by gardeners is the need to constantly fight against root shoots, uncontrollably "spreading" over the site. To avoid this, purchase varietal grafted lilacs. Or protect the near-trunk circle by digging slate sheets, plastic panels into the soil.
Lilac root growth is not only a problem for the gardener, it can be used to propagate bushes
Lilac is especially decorative, of course, during flowering, but in the rest of the year it does not spoil the overall picture. Therefore, landscape designers have nothing against the shrub and willingly use it in a variety of ways. However, it should be noted right away that without regular pruning, the bushes quickly overgrow, become very sloppy, and the lower branches completely go bald.
In mixed plantings, lilacs "solo" at the junction of spring and summer, then just creates a good background for other flowers. Therefore, in one-sided compositions, it is recommended to place it in the background, and when creating "islands" - in the center of the group.
Provide enough food for the tree. Lilac actively draws nutrients from the soil; directly under it, any plants that also consume them in high doses will not survive, you can plant only those that cost them a minimum. For example, a very beautiful "carpet" under a bush is obtained from periwinkle, hosts. Accordingly, bad neighbors for her are any fruit trees and berry bushes.
Small periwinkle goes well with any varieties of lilac - lilac, pink, white
Of the flowers, asters, lilies of the valley, phlox, zinnias, daylilies are well adjacent to lilacs. Peonies and hydrangeas ensure the continuity of flowering while maintaining the splendor of the composition. The only thing that should not be planted under lilacs is bulbous, which are dug out of the soil annually. In this case, the risk of damage to the roots increases, provoking the active formation of shoots.
A very suitable companion tree is almond (but it only grows in warm climates). A spectacular contrast can be created by planting a barberry, bubblegum, dogwood, privet next to it. Plants will differ in texture and / or color of the leaves. The combination of lilac with chubushnik (jasmine) is very popular. Austere and graceful compositions are obtained with willow and shepherdia, their silvery foliage "dilutes" bright greenery.
Do not plant perennial flowers directly under the lilacs, which need to be dug out annually.
A one-color flower bed is very decorative. Phlox, verbena, lavender, irises, viola, sage, tradescantia, crocuses, and decorative onions are planted next to lilacs with lilac flowers. The company will be white lilies of the valley, snowdrops, daffodils, asters, peonies, chamomile, jasmine.
Lilac will fit well into a monochrome flower bed in pink and purple tones
Lilac is also used as a tapeworm. But in this case, the bush must be carefully groomed and trimmed. The standard lilac looks original - the bush, with the help of pruning, turns into a kind of tree. For this, a one-year-old seedling is cut at a height of about 50 cm, leaving 3–6 pairs of growth buds. From them, as the shoots grow back, they form a crown, while simultaneously removing all the shoots on the "trunk" below the fork.
Standard lilac looks very original, somewhat reminiscent of Japanese bonsai
Lilac planted in one row along the perimeter of the site forms a very beautiful hedge, especially if you alternate between different varieties - approximately the same in height, but with multi-colored petals. It is better not to expose the fence to excessive haircut, decorativeness will suffer.
Lilac hedge practically does not need formative pruning
True fans often create a syringarium (lilac garden), where different varieties are presented. This is a rather complicated matter - when planting, you need to take into account the size, growth rate, shade of petals, flowering time. Otherwise, the garden will turn out to be inharmonious or tiresomely colorful, there will be no integrity of perception.
The lush blooming lilac looks very decorative, decorating the backyard in spring and summer. It looks good the rest of the time, covered with bright green leaves. The bush can be incorporated into almost any landscape design concept - experts recommend different options for its use.
Now let's talk about wedding dresses for the bride and groom. Of course, a lot has been said about this, and you probably already yourself know exactly how you want to look at the wedding celebration, but still, let's repeat the very basics. So, the wedding dress. What is he? In order to find out this, you will have to return to tradition. And, perhaps, you should start with color. The classic COLOR for the BRIDE outfit is WHITE. In all European countries, this color is associated with freshness, purity, innocence.
However, as you know, in the East and among Indian peoples, it is white that is the color of mourning, but their traditions rarely dictate fashion in Europe, therefore, for Europeans, white is still the color of triumph and purity.
White did not immediately become the official color of brides. Previously, all nations adhered to only one requirement regarding the bride's wedding vestments, namely, it must have been festive and, if possible, "rich".
For the decoration of the wedding dress, embroidery, jewelry, braid and lace were used, and those who could not afford it were limited to simply the bright colors of the suit. And yet, the wedding dress was always significantly different from ordinary clothes or even from weekend clothes and was worn once in a lifetime. But gradually certain standards developed, and somehow it turned out that the taste of Europeans converged on white, although, as we already mentioned, this did not happen right away.
For example, in Russia, rural brides literally until the middle of the twentieth century wore national costumes for weddings - blouses and sundresses, and in many eastern countries, national costumes are still used at weddings.
However, let's get back to European fashion - to the classic white color. Its semantic load is intended to emphasize the purity of the newlywed. In addition, white is an official, solemn and, perhaps, the most "noble" color. In a word, as our European ancestors decided, this is the most suitable color for the bride. And for quite some time now, he has been playing the role of the main, traditional color at the wedding ceremony.
In modern models of wedding dresses, classic white is gradually giving way to other shades, however, still light, such as beige, pink or blue. "Flashy" saturated colors of red or blue are the choice of extravagant ladies. The overwhelming majority of brides prefer not to resort to such extreme color schemes for a wedding dress.
Although with regard to scarlet - more and more brides prefer this particular color. After all, traditionally scarlet is a symbol of wealth, the sun, although among the Slavs it was considered mourning. But the white man, as we have already said, is by no means devoid of such "glory."
Initially, there is nothing wrong with the “mourning” colors in the outfits of the newlyweds, because a wedding is a kind of transition to a different quality. This is death as a maiden and a young man and birth as a wife and husband. You probably know that, according to folk traditions, the bride was always "mourned" before being given to someone else's house, into someone else's hands. Therefore, the presence of such colors as scarlet, black or the same white in the suits of the newlyweds is quite justified.
In a word, choosing scarlet for your wedding dress, you will clearly be doomed to increased attention to your own person, but isn't this what any bride longs for? However, remember that the scarlet color is self-sufficient, not everyone suits, and not everyone knows how to wear it. Therefore, consider how compatible you are with a blood red wedding dress before deciding on it.
Calmer tones and shades look quite appropriate at a wedding, moreover, they somewhat "enliven" the outfit and offer a huge scope for imagination. By and large, a long dress in a turquoise or beige shade and a trouser suit will look equally elegant. Especially if the bride is already well over twenty and she is not getting married for the first time.
By the way, about age. Of course, a bride is always a bride, whether she is eighteen or eighty, but, as a rule, more respectable ladies choose strict evening dresses or suits as a wedding dress, especially if it is not the first time they go to the registry office.
Recently, fashion designers, although they do not disregard white, are increasingly offering bright juicy tones as an alternative to it, guided by the consideration that the bride should attract as much attention to herself as possible. The most fantastic colors and styles, deep neckline and short tight dresses are used.
And yet there is no need to argue about the color scheme of the bride's dress, white is still the classic one. And if there is an "official" color, then there is an "official" style!
So, the historical, classic style of a wedding dress, as a rule, includes a small fitted bodice, made in the form of a corset, and a fluffy long skirt, often with a train. In a word, a kind of royal outfit. The upper part of the dress can be made of lace, satin or silk, the lower, often multi-layered, - of silk, chiffon, taffeta or the same satin.
The train, as a rule, is a continuation of the back panel of the skirt, and its length directly depends only on the taste and wishes of the bride herself, therefore, a train starting from the yoke on the back, from the shoulder line or from the waist is quite appropriate. In the old days, especially in Europe, a girl walked down the aisle only in a dress with a long train, although this, of course, mainly concerned girls from wealthy families, because the richer the parents were, the longer the train of the bride's wedding dress was. And what were the wedding dresses of royalty!
However, our young ladies also tried to keep up with fashion, for example, everyone knows the wedding dress of our Empress Catherine II. Not only was it made of hand-woven material and embroidered with jewels, the train of the dress was 70 meters long and 7 meters wide.Perhaps, hardly anyone could blame the Russian monarchy for saving money.
Now these "vestiges" have sunk into oblivion and no one any longer evaluates the well-being of the bride, based on the length of the train on her wedding dress.
Nevertheless, romantic natures still prefer such styles, hardly considering their "historical meaning". And in vain. In a wedding dress, without exception, all the attributes carry a serious semantic load, starting, as you have already seen, with the choice of color.
The veil on the head of the bride was not exclusively a wedding dress. Women in those distant times always and everywhere walked with their heads covered and not only in the countries of the East, where this tradition is still sacredly preserved. Previously, it was considered shameful for a woman to appear in public with a bare head. Only so-called women of easy virtue could afford this, and young girls and respectable married women could not even think of such a thing. And the veil was then a familiar headdress, only more richly decorated on the occasion of the celebration.
With the spread of Christianity, this tradition acquired a slightly different meaning, since it was impossible for a woman to enter the temple without a headdress both then and now. The only exception, perhaps, is the Catholic church rules, which allow women to attend church without a headdress, but these rules were introduced much later, and yet, despite such liberty, Catholic brides still prefer to wear a veil at their own weddings.
However, if we are talking about registration in the registry office, then now you can easily do without a veil, replacing it with a hat or limiting yourself to a wreath of flowers, or even just a few "twigs". On a high hairstyle, it looks very elegant and is in no way inferior in attractiveness to a traditional veil.
Gloves, attached to a classic wedding dress only a couple of centuries ago, also have a historical meaning, although it would be more accurate to say that they have a superstitious meaning, since, like a veil, they were designed to protect the bride from the evil eye, hiding even the newlywed's hands from outsiders. Later they began to be worn at the wedding just "for beauty."
For European brides, the obligatory attributes of a wedding dress are elements of underwear - a belt and garters. Most likely, the rituals associated with them are just a tribute to the sexual revolution that took place. We do not have such traditions, if only because the public “taking off” the garter by the groom, and then its traditional “throwing” is, you must agree, a rather arbitrary treatment of the newlywed. In Russia, the attitude towards the bride has always been reverent and respectful.
Traditions concern not only the dress for the bride, but also the suit for the Groom.
First, the costume must be new.
Secondly, it is advisable to purchase a black suit. Since this color ideally emphasizes and sets off the bride's outfit, moreover, black is the opposite of white, like a man is a woman. Black, in addition, is the official mourning color, and on the groom, it should be noted, he looks quite appropriate, because after the wedding he will have to start a new life as a husband, head of the family. Therefore, the "mourning" for youth and carefree life, expressed in the color of the suit, symbolizes the transition of a man from youth to maturity.
And thirdly, a boutonniere is a must-have addition to the groom's costume as a symbol of connection, as if a small part of the bride's attire is present in the groom's attire, just as her personality itself is now connected with him by strong bonds. If a wedding ring is a symbol of a man's seal applied to a bride, then a boutonniere, introduced into a classic groom's suit in the 19th century, is a seal of a bride.
Since such canons have developed relatively recently and were introduced from Europe, it is worth saying that much earlier there was only one requirement for the groom's outfit, as well as the bride's, - he had to be new. But gradually time and fashion made their own adjustments.
In the West, for two centuries the traditional attire of the groom is a tailcoat as an official, solemn suit. And those newlyweds who respect traditions and prefer classic wedding vestments choose a long dress and veil for the bride and a tailcoat pair for the groom.
In the modern version, the wedding suit for the groom can be gray. This is also a pretty classic choice. It's just that gray, considered the most neutral color, is chosen by those who tend to regard the presence of black at a wedding feast as not a good omen.
The cut of the suit itself is, as a rule, classic - a double-breasted jacket and straight trousers. The tuxedo looks great as a formal suit. In this case, instead of a tie, there should be a classic "bow tie". The shirt, as a rule, is chosen in light colors, most often white.
Now let's talk about the SHAPES of wedding dresses. So, the classic wedding dress, as we said, should be long. But here, too, certain traditions have developed and there are several options. For example: a dress with a tight bodice, a small neckline, long sleeves and a fluffy skirt. A distinctive detail of such a model can be a wide chiffon belt tied at the back with a large bow.
Or such a dress - an upper part made of guipure or lace and a satin or silk skirt. The style is also classic - ankle-length, fluffy skirt, tight bodice and long sleeves.
And another option that uses chiffon, silk and taffeta. The bodice, as usual, is tight-fitting, and the shape of the skirts (there are several of them) is supported by hoops. In general, hoops have now remained only in wedding dresses, because long fluffy skirts have long gone into centuries of history. However, remember that a dress with hoops is quite uncomfortable, it often gets in the way, it is uncomfortable to dance in it, and to get into the car too.
If you still want your outfit to be "according to all the rules", then you can restrict yourself to a fluffy underskirt made of tough material that keeps its shape. The appearance of such a dress is quite classic, and the inconvenience associated with wearing is much less.
A veil is an obligatory addition to all the described outfits.
Now we want to say just a few words about the wedding dress. If for registration of marriage in the registry office you can choose some non-traditional dress, then here you still have to take into account the requirements of the church.
The wedding dress should be long, with sleeves and preferably with a closed chest (deep necklines are not welcome); a veil should complement the outfit. In addition, it is traditionally believed that a wedding dress should be kept, in no case sold.
Now they say that the sale of a wedding dress is a bad omen, but in fact the roots of this belief are that, as the church teaches, during the wedding, grace from above is called upon and descends on the spouses, they are sanctified, therefore the dress in which the bride was married is exactly just like the groom's suit, it is not customary to put on afterwards, and even more so - to give into the wrong hands, while the transfer of a wedding dress by inheritance, on the contrary, is welcomed.
Therefore, we advise you to keep this in mind if you are going to get married, because wedding clothes are not simple "evening dresses"!
Another requirement for the bride's attire is footwear. Initially, it is believed that these should be closed shoes in white and classic style. Closed, as you yourself understand, because the bride should have everything that can be closed in order to emphasize her chastity.
Today, an important requirement for an outfit is its convenience. After all, a wedding, as a rule, lasts more than one hour, therefore both the dress and the shoes should be as comfortable as possible and not cause unnecessary trouble for the bride. And the choice of style depends only on the taste of the newlywed. However, we must try to take into account the requirements for the wedding dress as much as possible, and try not to wear open high-heeled sandals to the wedding.
In general, there are many traditions associated with wedding dresses. For example, it is believed that you cannot buy a dress in advance, this is a bad omen, just like buying baby accessories while the baby has not yet appeared. In addition, it is always and everywhere accepted to observe the tradition of prohibiting the groom from seeing the bride in a wedding dress before the wedding day.
The latter, most likely, is due to the fact that, after all, wedding dresses previously carried a certain meaning, because they got married and got married for the most part once in a lifetime. The outfit itself is surrounded by a certain aura of mystery, which was largely created by the wedding ceremony, during which the blessing of God is invoked on the young, in other words, supernatural forces. Therefore, the attitude to wedding dresses was special.
However, all this applies to traditional, classic outfits. Modern fashion is quite loyal and quite democratic, now wedding dresses, their styles and colors depend solely on the taste of the bride. In addition, many women prefer elegant trouser suits instead of fluffy long skirts.
If you prefer to wear a mini in everyday life, then your wedding dress can also be a mini dress. That being said, you don't have to give up the traditional loop. A fluffy short skirt ending in a long train at the back looks very original and romantic.
A wedding mini dress can be completely tight-fitting, and in the winter season, a traditional silk or satin dress can easily replace a dress made of wool or jersey, complemented by a short fur coat made of faux or natural fur. This set looks very impressive if it is made of white fabric.
Trousers have long become an invariable attribute of women's clothing, and it's no secret that many ladies prefer them. Well, the modern fashion for wedding dresses has fully foreseen this possibility, and it can be either a classic trouser suit or a jumpsuit. The style of the latter can have a variety of details and vary from the usual models with spaghetti straps to models without them.
But this does not apply to weddings at all, the requirements for a wedding dress remain the same, even if you already have grandchildren. All the same, it is strictly forbidden to wear too short or open dresses at the wedding, as well as trouser suits, as well as to get married with an uncovered head. If these requirements are not met, they will simply refuse to marry you.
But in our century, many women, when choosing a wedding dress, are guided not by traditions, but by considerations of economy and, let's say, mobility. They prefer to buy an outfit in which they can appear more than once, so trouser suits and overalls, as well as modern models of dresses, come in handy here.
Alas, the times when wedding dresses were kept and passed down from generation to generation have hopelessly sunk into oblivion, but this certainly has its advantages. Modern fashion is so unpredictable, and its tendencies are so elusive that a dress made for a wedding by your mother or grandmother (taking into account "that" fashion), of course, will hardly look appropriate now.
It should be noted that this perspective rarely applies to the classic styles of wedding dresses, since they have not changed for at least a couple of centuries. All that is required is to fit the newly-born bride to the figure and "update" something with the help of accessories.
Therefore, if you are by nature sentimental and romantic and it seems to you that this tradition has been unfairly forgotten, then you may well take the risk and, having “walked” in your wedding dress for the allotted day, put it in a chest in order to solemnly hand it over twenty years later. daughter. This is especially true for the wedding dress. Let's hope that in such a short time the fashion for classic wedding dresses will not pass.
Although, of course, the prospect that opens before the bride, who has chosen a modern fashion trend and embodied it in her wedding dress, is also quite tempting. Indeed, thanks to various accessories, such an outfit can be modified and completely used as an evening one more than once!
And yet, you must admit that rarely a woman's heart will not flutter at the sight of a snow-white miracle called a classic wedding dress!
As for the headdress, the veil has long been replaced by a variety of hats. Their choice is so large that wide-brimmed lace hats and small "pills" can be considered "classics of the genre" in the full sense. In the winter version, the bride's headdress can generally be a beret, decorated with flowers.
Convenience and simplicity - the mottos of today's fashion - are the best fit for a many-hour wedding ceremony. Especially the convenience. Agree, a very sad sight is a bride in a dress with a tight bodice, a long skirt ending with an even longer train, in a multi-layer veil, and even in high-heeled shoes at the end of the wedding feast. Most brides confess that their dreams during a wedding celebration are only in how to get rid of all this splendor as soon as possible. But the first wedding night is still ahead.
Therefore, you should carefully calculate your strength and, if possible, ease your fate if you still opted for the classics. First, it is imperative to take into account the time of year, as well as the air temperature in the place where, in fact, you will spend most of your first wedding day.
Secondly, your dress should fit your figure. If during the fitting you feel that something is pressing somewhere or causing other inconveniences, then try to get rid of these "shortcomings", given that after several hours of wearing the unpleasant sensations will increase several times.
Third, try to choose underwear that is comfortable. Agree that the general women's well-being and mood largely depends on the style of underwear, do not complicate the most important day in life with an unsuccessful choice of a bra or panties.
And finally, fourth, pay close attention to the shoes. Since, as a rule, shoes are bought together with a dress, it should be noted that new shoes often cause inconvenience for the first few days of wearing. Take care of your feet, on their wedding day they are already facing difficult trials, make it easier for them - choose shoes with a small heel and a suitable size. As a last resort, try to "distribute" shoes before the wedding (of course, only at home).
Try to "get used to" your wedding dress, wear it at home, just remember that you should not be caught in it by the groom, and you yourself should not see yourself in full vestments. But for this it is enough just not to put on shoes or a veil.
If you prefer just an evening dress or a trouser suit, then remember that this is still not a simple outfit, so before putting it on after the wedding “into the light”, try to change or add some detail to it, because the traditions accompanying and prevailing around a wedding dress can hardly be called simple superstitions. They took shape for more than one year and even more than one decade, which means they are time-tested, and they are aimed only at one thing - to call good forces to help newlyweds and protect them from evil forces.
Now you need to add just a few words about where and how you can choose a wedding dress, of course, we are talking again about the classics. Of course, you can buy a dress and suit at the bridal salon. The choice and prices are now very diverse, they can satisfy the tastes of the vast majority of brides and grooms. In addition, you can rent a dress, which, by the way, is now very common. And, of course, you can make a custom-made wedding dress.
The last option differs in that, having chosen it, in ninety-nine percent of cases your dress will be exclusive, that is, you practically do not risk meeting a few more girls in the registry office, dressed in exactly the same dress as yours. And such situations do happen, and it should be noted, unfortunately, quite often. So you can insure yourself against such an "accident".
In conclusion, I would like to say that since it is customary for us, in Russia, to have weddings for two days, then, naturally, there are certain requirements in the dress of the bride and groom for the second day of the wedding.
These requirements are very simple. The most important thing is that the clothes must be new. That is why the dress for the bride on the second day is usually bought or sewn. There are no restrictions either in color or in style. You can safely choose what you like, and even (!) Do not consult with anyone. The main thing is that you feel comfortable and you know that even today you have no equal among women.
The groom, that is already the husband, has every right to put on a wedding suit, while changing his shirt and tie. If the weather permits, then it is quite appropriate to put on just trousers and a shirt with short sleeves. You can afford to relax and do without a tie.
In a word, as you already understood, the requirements for the suits of the newlyweds on the second day of the wedding festivities can be called requirements only with a stretch. Remember only that outfits should be as new as possible.
Summing up the conversation, we add that no matter how traditions develop and whatever conditions modern fashion sets, the most important thing is that the wedding day brings you as much joy as possible, therefore, the choice of outfits should be primarily determined by this alone.
Preparing a dowry is probably one of the oldest wedding traditions. It existed even before people began to marry (we are talking about the modern concept of the word). In the distant Stone Age, a dowry was given for one of the spouses. But at that time this spouse was most often just a man. The dowry, of course, did not consist of pillows and household appliances, but it was necessary. The proud groom brought a mammoth skin to a woman as a sign that he could provide for a new family. This animal skin can be called a dowry that a man gave for himself.
Closer to our time, marriage traditions have generally changed beyond recognition. But this one remained almost unchanged. A dowry is always given for the bride. In the Middle Ages, brides were led down the aisle and given "after them" dresses and adornments. Whole chests migrated to the groom's house immediately after the wedding.
The dowry usually began to be saved immediately after the birth of the girl. The parents made sure that the girl could count on a good marriage. The number of cups, pillows, dresses, and jewelery would determine the degree of marriage luck she could count on. If a girl was "given" little, then she was threatened with marriage to a common man, and a lady with a large dowry could lay eyes on a nobleman.
But this is the dowry that was given for the ladies, and the men gave their wife their title as a dowry. It was like a ritual exchange: money - for a position in society. In addition, other types of dowry were often given for men, we are talking about allotments. In Russia, at birth in the family of the heir, the parents received another additional allotment of land. These were quite large areas! It was believed that when the baby grows up and creates a family, he will build a house in this place and will cultivate this land.
For the girl, the land allotment was not given. The richest brides were considered to be the daughters of merchants and boyars. Remember the tale about Ivanushka the Fool. Two brides: one is a merchant's daughter, she has pillows and trinkets in her dowry, and the second is a boyar's daughter, she has dresses and jewelry in her chests.
In the Middle Ages, unions were often created not for love, they tried to betray girls as profitably as possible, and no one paid attention to their feelings. The young beauty was told that, they say, she will endure - she will fall in love. It even happened that the parents gave the girls in marriage to a lower class in order to improve their financial situation. In this case, of course, nothing was given for her, except for beauty and health. Such brides were taken only for procreation.
Gone are the days, and the tradition has changed little. The dowry is given for the bride, who goes to the groom's house. The parents of the young girl still collect the dowry, though not always traditional. But marriage is concluded on both sides, so what does the groom give for him?
In our time, the state no longer gives an allotment of land for each born baby, and the titles have not been preserved in our time. So how can the groom please the bride?
The peoples professing Islam have retained the custom of paying kalym for the bride. A man must provide for his new family, keep the hearth from the encroachments of other people, be strong and courageous. And how to check how suitable he is for this role? This is what kalym exists for. The groom gives the money earned by his labor and other material values for the bride.
It is believed that if the kalym is large, then a man will be able to feed a new family, that he is able to find a way out of any life cataclysms. Since he has proven his ability to earn money, conduct financial affairs in such a way that there is still left for the future, then he can already be entrusted with such a delicate and fragile flower like a woman.
In the Caucasus, livestock is most often given as kalym. Mostly sheep. For a good bride, you can give a whole flock of five hundred heads. In our time, the number of rams, of course, is much smaller, and household items are also added to them. Remember the unforgettable "Prisoner of the Caucasus". Comrade Saakhov offered rams and a new refrigerator for his chosen bride.
The amount of money accumulated by the groom plays not just the role of an indicator of the wealth of the young, he can serve an inexperienced husband who has not yet learned to look after his wife. A newly minted spouse can get into an interesting situation.
In the traditions of many peoples, there is such a rite or custom as stealing a bride. Young people are engaged in this "obscene" business: either bridesmaids or friends of the groom. They take the young woman away and hide her on the very first day of the wedding. And the unlucky groom is asked the question: "Have you seen your wife?"
This is where the money saved up will be needed to return the betrothed, but you can demand a lot, so the groom will have to fork out for the entire program, just so as not to be left alone. And the sooner the groom redeems the bride from captivity, the more he will be respected.
But that's not all, the groom needs money for other purposes as well. Let's go back a little to the moment when the groom enters the bride's house for the first time on the wedding day. His intentions include buying himself a lovely life partner, but, oddly enough, it is not he himself who deals with the ransom, but his best friend. The witness, with the help of all sorts of distracting maneuvers, makes his way to the bride. Moreover, thanks to another long-standing Russian tradition, he often has to do this several times, since there can be many false brides and you have to pay for each of them in order to check whether it is real or not.
But this does not end there either. The groom is assigned a number of tasks that he must complete in order to demonstrate his physical strength, endurance, and ingenuity. The witness also pays for his mistakes. So the groom's friend spends quite a lot on the ransom. By this, he kind of lends to the groom.
But, as a decent person, the groom is obliged to return to the witness the amount he spent on the ransom. But how to do that? After all, you will not give money away just like that, and even in front of everyone. There is another wedding custom for this.
On the second day of the wedding, the newlyweds are obliged to return the borrowed amount. From early morning, the witness and the bridesmaid sit in the places of the bride and groom at the table. And when young people come, they cannot occupy them. So the young husband is paying for the efforts that his friend had undertaken the day before.
But even that is not all. Since all women are considered to have a sweet tooth, and men are considered wine lovers, sometimes you have to redeem sweets and champagne. The young redeem their wedding cake, as well as a bunch of tied wedding bottles, which witnesses can also hide.
So by the end of the entire wedding, the groom may be completely without money if he is not rich enough.
So what is the role of the dowry and the kalym? This is a beautiful custom, a tradition that has come to us from time immemorial, serves primarily to provide a young family with everything they need. For the bride, as for a woman, everything that is necessary in the household is given: linen, pillows, tableware, and the man brings money and everything that can be called material values into the house.
After the wedding, newlyweds simply need these savings collected over the years! It's nice when family life does not start from a round zero. Young people are more or less well off and at first may not worry that their new home lacks the necessary things for life.